Cisco Offline Password 7 Decryption

Create a .html file with the following content:


Port Security

Port security is a layer two traffic control feature on Cisco Catalyst switches. It enables an administrator configure individual switch ports to allow only a specified number of source MAC addresses ingressing the port. Its primary use is to deter the addition by users of „dumb“ switches to illegally extend the reach of the network (e.g. so that two or three users can share a single access port). The addition of unmanaged devices complicates troubleshooting by administrators and is best avoided.

Enabling Port Security

Port security can be enabled with default parameters by issuing a single command on an interface:

Although only a single interface is used for illustration in this article, port security, if configured, is typically configured on all user-facing interfaces.

We can view the default port security configuration with show port-security:

As you can see, there are a number of attributes which can be adjusted. We’ll cover these in a moment. When a host connects to the switch port, the port learns the host’s MAC address as the first frame is received:

Now, we disconnect the host from the port, connect a small switch or hub, and reconnect the original host plus a second, unauthorized host so that they both attempt to share the access port. Observe what happens as soon as the second host attempts to send traffic:

Inspecting the status of port security on the port again, we can see that the new MAC address triggered a violation:

By default, a port security violation forces the interface into the error-disabled state. An administrator must re-enable the port manually by issuing the shutdown interface command followed by no shutdown. This must be done after the offending host has been removed, or the violation will be triggered again as soon as the second host sends another frame.

Tweaking Port Security

Violation Mode

Port security can be configured to take one of three actions upon detecting a violation:

shutdown (default) ; The interface is placed into the error-disabled state, blocking all traffic. protect ; Frames from MAC addresses other than the allowed addresses are dropped; traffic from allowed addresses is permitted to pass normally. restrict ; Like protect mode, but generates a syslog message and increases the violation counter.

By changing the violation mode to restrict, we are still alerted when a violation occurs, but legitimate traffic remains unaffected:

Unfortunately, violating traffic will continue to trigger log notifications, and the violation counter will continue to increase, until the violating host is dealt with.

Maximum MAC Addresses

By default, port security limits the ingress MAC address count to one. This can be modified, for example, to accommodate both a host and an IP phone connected in series on a switch port:

One also has the option to set a maximum MAC count for the access and voice VLANs independently (assuming a voice VLAN has been configured on the interface):

MAC Address Learning

An administrator has the option of statically configuring allowed MAC addresses per interface. MAC addresses can optionally be configured per VLAN (access or voice).

The configured MAC address(es) are recorded in the running configuration:

Obviously, this is not a scalable practice. A much more convenient alternative is to enable „sticky“ MAC address learning; MAC addresses will be dynamically learned until the maximum limit for the interface is reached.

After a MAC address has been learned, it is recorded to the configuration similarly to as if it were entered manually:

MAC Address Aging

By default, secure MAC addresses are learned (in effect) permanently. Aging can be configured so that the addresses expire after a certain amount of time has passed. This allows a new host to take the place of one which has been removed. Aging can be configured to take effect at regular intervals, or only during periods of inactivity. The following example configures expiration of MAC addresses after five minutes of inactivity:

After five minutes of inactivity, we can see that the address has been purged:

At this point, the old address will be re-learned the next time a frame is sent from that host, or a new host can take its place.


To avoid having to manually intervene every time a port-security violation forces an interface into the error-disabled state, one can enable auto-recovery for port security violations. A recovery interval is configured in seconds.

Ten minutes after a port was error-disabled, we can see that the port is automatically transitioned back into operation:

This is a great way to automatically clear port security violations after the user has been given an opportunity to remove the offending host(s). Note that is the cause is not cleared, the violation will trigger again after the port comes back up, re-initating the auto-recovery cycle.


Although a deterrent, port security is not a reliable security feature, as MAC addresses are trivially spoofed, and multiple hosts can still easily be hidden behind a small router. IEEE 802.1X is a much more robust access edge security solution.


Source of the article:

Wiederherstellung Cisco IOS mit Xmodem

Solltet ihr bei eurem Router/Switch das IOS zerschossen haben, oder den Flash gelöscht haben, wir das Gerät nicht mehr starten. Damit das Gerät wieder ein IOS laden kann, muss wieder eins in den Flash geladen werden. Als erstes solltet ihr ein ordentliches Terminalprogramm herunterladen. Ich empfehle TeraTerm (Download). Mit “show flash” könnt ihr euch den Inhalt des Flash-Speichers anzeigen lassen. Das geht natürlich nur wenn noch ein IOS drauf ist, wie in meinem Fall. Ich lösche jetzt meinen Flash mit “erase flash:”. imageNach einem Neustart des Routers findet er kein IOS mehr. Es erscheint eine Fehlermeldung “boot: cannot open flash:”. Mit der Eingabe von “confreg” erscheint die Konfigurationszusammenfassung. Wir ändern nur die “Boud rate” damit wir das Image schneller kopieren können. Anschließend tippen wir “reset” um die neue Konsoleneinstellung zu laden. Jetzt über TeraTerm “Einstellungen/Seriellen Port einrichten” die Boud rate anpassen.image

Im nächsten Schritt sagen wir welches Cisco IOS er laden soll. In meinem Fall “xmodem c2600-ipbase-mz.123-9b.bin”. Nachdem wir das eingegeben haben werden wir gefragt “ Do you wish to continue?” wir bestätigen das mit Y. Jetzt müssen wir das IO-Image noch mit TeraTerm an den Router senden. Über “Datei/Transfer/Xmodem/Senden” wählen wir das IOS-Image aus. Das kopieren dauert etwas.

Nach einem Neustart lädt der Router/Switch das eingespielte IOS. Wichtig ist, dass ihr die Boud rate wieder auf 9600 zurück setzt.
Router(config)#line con 0
Router(config-line)# speed 9600
Router(config-line)# exit

Überprüfen könnt Ihr die IOS-Version mit “show version”

Bei einem Switch ist der Ablauf etwas anders. Den “Mode” Knoopf gedrückt halten und den Switch an Strom anschliessen, Knopf gedrückt halten.

switch: flash_init (Falsh initialisieren)
switch: BAUD 115200 (Baud-Rate erhöhen)
switch: copy xmodem: flash:c2960-lanbasek9-mz.122-55.SE1.bin (Mit xmodem über Terminalprog. senden)
switch: set BOOT flash:c2960-lanbasek9-mz.122-55.SE1.bin (Boot-Parameter anpassen)
switch: set BAUD 9600 (Baud-Rate wie auf Standard)
switch: boot (IOS booten)